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Use this index to understand key terms about the Affordable Care Act, Indian Health Care Improvement Act and health care. Just click on a letter above.

Accountable Care Organization
A group of health care providers who give coordinated care, chronic disease management, and thereby improve the quality of care patients get. The organization’s payment is tied to achieving health care quality goals and outcomes that result in cost savings.
Affordable Care Act
The comprehensive health care reform law enacted in March 2010. The law was enacted in two parts: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was signed into law on March 23, 2010 and was amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act on March 30, 2010. The name “Affordable Care Act” is used to refer to the final, amended version of the law.
Affordable Insurance Exchange
See Exchange
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
Pub.L. 111-5 (aka, Stimulus Bill), is an economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress in February 2009 and signed into law on February 17, 2009, by President Barack Obama. To respond to the late-2000s recession, the primary objective for ARRA was to save and create jobs almost immediately. Secondary objectives were to provide temporary relief programs for those most impacted by the recession and invest in infrastructure, education, health, and ‘green’ energy. The approximate cost of the economic stimulus package was estimated to be $787 billion at the time of passage. The Act included direct spending in infrastructure, education, health, and energy, federal tax incentives, and expansion of unemployment benefits and other social welfare provisions. The Act also included many items not directly related to economic recovery such as long-term spending projects (e.g., a study of the effectiveness of medical treatments) and other items specifically included by Congress (e.g., a limitation on executive compensation in federally aided banks added by Senator Dodd and Rep. Frank).
The health care items or services covered under a health insurance plan. Covered benefits and excluded services are defined in the health insurance plan’s coverage documents. In Medicaid or CHIP, covered benefits and excluded services are defined in state program rules.
Care Coordination
The organization of your treatment across several health care providers. Medical homes and Accountable Care Organizations are two common ways to coordinate care.
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
Insurance program jointly funded by state and Federal government that provides health insurance to low-income children and, in some states, pregnant women in families who earn too much income to qualify for Medicaid but cannot afford to purchase private health insurance coverage.
Chronic Disease Management
An integrated care approach to managing illness which includes screenings, check-ups, monitoring and coordinating treatment, and patient education. It can improve your quality of life while reducing your health care costs if you have a chronic disease by preventing or minimizing the effects of a disease.
A request for payment that you or your health care provider submits to your health insurer when you get items or services you think are covered.
Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP)
A Consumer operated and oriented plan is a non-profit, member run health insurance organization authorized and funded under the ACA CO-OP program to foster competition in a local insurance markets.
Cost Sharing
The share of costs covered by your insurance that you pay out of your own pocket. This term generally includes deductibles, coinsurance and copayments, or similar charges, but it doesn’t include premiums, balance billing amounts for non-network providers, or the cost of non-covered services. Cost sharing in Medicaid and CHIP also includes premiums.
Creditable Coverage
Health insurance coverage under any of the following: a group health plan; individual health insurance; student health insurance; Medicare; Medicaid; CHAMPUS and TRICARE; the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Indian Health Service; the Peace Corps; Public Health Plan (any plan established or maintained by a State, the U.S. government, a foreign country); Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) or a state health insurance high risk pool. If you have prior creditable coverage, it will reduce the length of a pre-existing condition exclusion period under new job-based coverage.
The amount you must pay for covered care before your health insurance begins to pay. Insurers apply and structure deductibles differently. For example, under one plan, a comprehensive deductible might apply to all services while another plan might have separate deductibles for benefits such as prescription drug coverage.
Dependent Coverage
Insurance coverage for family members of the policyholder, such as spouses, children, or partners.
A limit in a range of major life activities. This includes activities like seeing, hearing, walking and tasks like thinking and working. Because different programs may have different disability standards, please check the program you’re interested in for its disability standards. Insurance policies must cover these benefits in order to be certified and offered in Exchanges, and all Medicaid State plans must cover these services by 2014. Starting with plan years or policy years that began on or after September 23, 2010, health plans can no longer impose a lifetime dollar limit on spending for these services. All plans, except grandfathered individual health insurance policies, must phase out annual dollar spending limits for these services by 2014. The Department of Health and Human Services is working with a number of partners to develop the essential health benefits package. In the fall of 2011, HHS will launch an effort to collect public comment and hear directly from all Americans who are interested in sharing their thoughts on this important issue.
Essential Community Provider (ECP)
Is a defined health care provider type under the Affordable Care Act that serves low-income and medically underserved individuals.
Essential Health Benefits Package (EHBP)
Consists of the essential benefits, limits on cost-sharing, and has a specified actuarial value (i.e. pays for a specified percentage of costs). The essential health benefits are to be defined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services and must be defined to include the following categories of services; Ambulatory patient services; emergency services; hospitalization; maternity and newborn care; mental health and substance use disorder services, including behavioral health treatment; prescription drugs; rehabilitative and habilitative services and devices; laboratory services; preventative and wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral and vision care.
A new transparent and competitive insurance marketplace where individuals and small businesses can buy affordable and qualified health benefit plans. Affordable Insurance Exchanges will offer you a choice of health plans that meet certain benefits and cost standards. Starting in 2014, Members of Congress will be getting their health care insurance through Exchanges and you will be able buy your insurance through Exchanges too
Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHB)
Provides health insurance to employees of the U.S. Federal government and, under the ACA, to employees of Tribes, tribal organizations and urban Indian organizations.
Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)
The ratio that determines the federal share of Medicaid health service costs.
Federal Poverty Level (FPL)
A measure of income level issued annually by the Department of Health and Human Services. Federal poverty levels are used to determine your eligibility for certain programs and benefits.
Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC)
Federally funded nonprofit health centers or clinics that serve medically underserved areas and populations. Federally qualified health centers provide primary care services regardless of your ability to pay. Services are provided on a sliding scale fee based on your ability to pay.
Fee for Service
A method in which doctors and other health care providers are paid for each service performed. Examples of services include tests and office visits.
Flexible Spending Account (FSA)
An arrangement you set up through your employer to pay for many of your out-of-pocket medical expenses with tax-free dollars. These expenses include insurance copayments and deductibles, and qualified prescription drugs, insulin and medical devices. You decide how much of your pre-tax wages you want taken out of your paycheck and put into an FSA. You don’t have to pay taxes on this money. Your employer’s plan sets a limit on the amount you can put into an FSA each year. There is no carry-over of FSA funds. This means that FSA funds you don’t spend by the end of the plan year can’t be used for expenses in the next year. An exception is if your employer’s FSA plan permits you to use unused FSA funds for expenses incurred during a grace period of up to 2.5 months after the end of the FSA plan year. (Note: Flexible Spending Accounts are sometimes called Flexible Spending Arrangements.
Health Plan- Under ACA, individuals are allowed to maintain their coverage as it existed on the date of enactment (March 23, 2010), except even grandfathered health plans are subject to new requirements on lifetime limits, coverage of adult children, and other items listed in ACA section 1251.
Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS)
Services and support provided by most state Medicaid programs in your home or community that gives help with such daily tasks as bathing or dressing. This care is covered when provided by care workers or, if your state permits it, by your family.
Health Care Workforce Development
The use of incentives and recruiting to encourage people to enter into health care professions such as primary care and to encourage providers to practice in underserved areas.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
A type of health insurance plan that usually limits coverage to care from doctors who work for or contract with the HMO. It generally won’t cover out-of-network care except in an emergency. An HMO may require you to live or work in its service area to be eligible for coverage. HMOs often provide integrated care and focus on prevention and wellness.
Health Savings Account (HSA)
A medical savings account available to taxpayers who are enrolled in a High Deductible Health Plan. The funds contributed to the account aren’t subject to federal income tax at the time of deposit. Funds must be used to pay for qualified medical expenses. Unlike a Flexible Spending Account (FSA), funds roll over year to year if you don’t spend them.
High Risk Pool Plan (State)
Similar to the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan under the Affordable Care Act, for years many states have offered plans that provide coverage if you have been locked out of the individual insurance market because of a pre-existing condition. High-risk pool plans may also offer coverage if you’re HIPAA eligible or meet other requirements. High-risk pool plans offer health insurance coverage that is subsidized by a state government. Typically, your premium is up to twice as much as you would pay for individual coverage if you were healthy.
HIPAA Eligible Individual
Your status once you have had 18 months of continuous creditable health coverage. To be HIPAA eligible, at least the last day of your creditable coverage must have been under a group health plan; you also must have used up any COBRA or state continuation coverage; you must not be eligible for Medicare or Medicaid; you must not have other health insurance; and you must apply for individual health insurance within 63 days of losing your prior creditable coverage. When you’re buying individual health insurance, HIPAA eligibility gives you greater protections than you would otherwise have under state law.
Home Health Care
Health care services and supplies a doctor decides you may get in your home under a plan of care established by your doctor.
Indian Health Care Improvement Act
The Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA) is a key legal authority for the provision of health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). The IHCIA was originally enacted in 1976 to address the deplorable health conditions in Indian Country. As Congress states in the findings of IHCIA: “Federal health services to maintain and improve the health of the Indians are consonant with and required by the Federal government’s historical and unique legal relationship with, and resulting responsibility to, the American Indian people.” Along with the Snyder Act of 1921, the IHCIA forms the statutory basis for the delivery of health care to AI/ANs, by the Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA)
Individual Responsibility
Under the Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014, you must be enrolled in a health insurance plan that meets basic minimum standards. If you aren’t, you may be required to pay an assessment. You won’t have to pay an assessment if you are American Indian or Alaska Native and receive your health care services from an IHS, tribal, or urban clinic, have very low income and coverage is unaffordable to you, or for other reasons including your religious beliefs. You can also apply for a waiver asking not to pay an assessment if you don’t qualify automatically.
Long-Term Care Services and Supports (LTCSS)
Services that include medical and non-medical care provided to people who are unable to perform basic activities of daily living such as dressing or bathing. Long-term supports and services can be provided at home, in the community, in assisted living or in nursing homes. Individuals may need long-term supports and services at any age. Medicare and most health insurance plans don’t pay for long-term care.
A state-administered health insurance program for low-income families and children, pregnant women, the elderly, people with disabilities, and in some states, other adults. The Federal government provides a portion of the funding for Medicaid and sets guidelines for the program. States also have choices in how they design their program, so Medicaid varies state by state and may have a different name in your state.
A Federal health insurance program for people who are age 65 or older and certain younger people with disabilities. It also covers people with End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant, sometimes called ESRD)
Medicare Advantage (Medicare Part C):
A type of Medicare health plan offered by a private company that contract with Medicare to provide you with all your Medicare Part A and Part B benefits. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Private Fee-for-Service Plans, Special Needs Plans, and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. If you’re enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan, Medicare services are covered through the plan and aren’t paid for under Original Medicare. Most Medicare Advantage Plans offer prescription drug coverage.
Medicare Part D
A program that helps pay for prescription drugs for people with Medicare who join a plan that includes Medicare prescription drug coverage. There are two ways to get Medicare prescription drug coverage: through a Medicare Prescription Drug Plan or a Medicare Advantage Plan that includes drug coverage. These plans are offered by insurance companies and other private companies approved by Medicare.
Medicare Prescription Drug Donut Hole
Most plans with Medicare prescription drug coverage (Part D) have a coverage gap (called a “donut hole”). This means that after you and your drug plan have spent a certain amount of money for covered drugs, you have to pay all costs out-of-pocket for your prescriptions up to a yearly limit. Once you have spent up to the yearly limit, your coverage gap ends and your drug plan helps pay for covered drugs again.
Minimum Essential Coverage
The type of coverage an individual needs to have to meet the individual responsibility requirement under the Affordable Care Act. This includes individual market policies, job-based coverage, Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, TRICARE and certain other coverage.
A requirement that job-based coverage not discriminate based on health status. Coverage under job-based plans cannot be denied or restricted. You also can’t be charged more because of your health status. Job-based plans can restrict coverage based on other factors such as part-time employment that aren’t related to health status.
New Plan
As used in connection with the Affordable Care Act: A health plan that is not a grandfathered health plan and therefore subject to all of the reforms in the Affordable Care Act. In the individual health insurance market, a plan that your family is purchasing for the first time will generally be a new plan. In the group health insurance market, a plan that your employer is offering for the first time will generally be a new plan. Please note that new employees and new family members may be added to existing grandfathered group plans – so a plan that is “new to you” and your family may still be a grandfathered plan. In both the individual and group markets, a plan that loses its grandfathered status will be considered a new plan. A plan loses its grandfathered status when it makes significant changes to the plan, such as reducing benefits or increasing cost-sharing for enrollees. A health plan must disclose in its plan materials whether it considers itself to be a grandfathered plan and must also advise consumers how to contact the U.S. Department of Labor or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services with questions.
Out-of-Pocket Limit (OOP)
The maximum amount you will have to pay for covered services in a year. Generally, this includes the deductible, coinsurance, and copayments. This definition may vary from plan to plan. For example, in some plans the out-of-pocket limit doesn’t include cost sharing for all services, such as prescription drugs. Plans may have different out-of-pocket limits for different services. In Medicaid and CHIP, the limit includes premiums.
Open Enrollment Period
The period of time set up to allow you to choose from available plans, usually once a year.
Out-of-Pocket Costs
Your expenses for medical care that are not reimbursed by insurance. Out-of-pocket costs include deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments for covered services plus all costs for services that aren’t covered.
Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)
Is a program under Medicare and Medicaid that provides comprehensive medical and social services for frail adults.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
See Affordable Care Act
A monthly payment you make to your insurer to get and keep insurance coverage. Premiums can be paid by employers, unions, employees or individuals or shared among different payers.
Activities to prevent illness such as routine check-ups, immunizations, patient counseling, and screenings.
Preventive Services
Routine health care that includes screenings, check-ups, and patient counseling to prevent illnesses, disease, or other health problems. Learn more about preventive care and services.
Primary Care
Health services that cover a range of prevention, wellness, and treatment for common illnesses. Primary care providers include doctors, nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. They often maintain long-term relationships with you and advise and treat you on a range of health related issues. They may also coordinate your care with specialists.
Qualified Health Plan
Under the Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014, an insurance plan that is certified by an Exchange, provides essential health benefits, follows established limits on cost-sharing (like deductibles, copayments, and out-of-pocket maximum amounts), and meets other requirements. A qualified health plan will have a certification by each Exchange in which it is sold.
Risk Adjustment
A statistical process that takes into account the underlying health status and health spending of the enrollees in an insurance plan when looking at their health care outcomes or health care costs.
Skilled Nursing Facility Care
Skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services provided on a continuous, daily basis, in a skilled nursing facility. Examples of skilled nursing facility care include physical therapy or intravenous injections that can only be given by a registered nurse or doctor.
Special Health Care Need
The health care and related needs of children who have chronic physical, developmental, behavioral or emotional conditions. Such needs are of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally.
Uncompensated Care
Health care or services provided by hospitals or health care providers that don’t get reimbursed. Often uncompensated care arises when people don’t have insurance and cannot afford to pay the cost of care.
Value-Based Purchasing (VBP)
Linking provider payments to improved performance by health care providers. This form of payment holds health care providers accountable for both the cost and quality of care they provide. It attempts to reduce inappropriate care and to identify and reward the best-performing providers.
Well-baby and Well-child Visits
Routine doctor visits for comprehensive preventive health services that occur when a baby is young and annual visits until a child reaches age 21. Services include physical exam and measurements, vision and hearing screening, and oral health risk assessments.
Wellness Program
A program intended to improve and promote health and fitness that’s usually offered through the work place, although insurance plans can offer them directly to their enrollees. The program allows your employer or plan to offer you premium discounts, cash rewards, gym memberships, and other incentives to participate. Some examples of wellness programs include programs to help you stop smoking, diabetes management programs, weight loss programs, and preventative health screenings.